The Revolutions of 1848

Civil upheavals in Europe soon resumed after the revolutions of 1830 with those of 1848. These revolutions primarily affected France and Austria, among other countries. The results of these revolutions, in terms of their main purpose, were unsuccessful, but they fueled the rise of nationalism that had a major role to play in the coming … Continue reading The Revolutions of 1848


The French Revolution of 1830

In the wake of the Napoleonic wars, Louis XVIII of France was forced by the major powers of Europe during the Congress of Vienna to adopt a sort of constitution called The Charter of 1814. During the reign of Charles X, Louis' successor, there existed two rival political groups: the Ultras and the Liberals. The … Continue reading The French Revolution of 1830


Romanticism was a movement contemporary with the later stages of Neoclassicism, but had not much to do with it ideologically. It was not fundamentally opposed to Neoclassicism, as was Modernism, but it placed its emphasis differently. Romanticism focused on the spiritual aspect of humanity, concerning itself more with emotion than with rationality. While Neoclassicism took … Continue reading Romanticism


A movement beginning in the 18th century, Neoclassicism was characterized by a movement towards order and rationality among the arts. As its name suggests, there was a revival of Classical Greek and Roman culture, reflected most notably in architecture. The Neoclassical period coincided with the Enlightenment, and reflects its confidence in reason, among other ideas. … Continue reading Neoclassicism

Bernard Mandeville’s Influence on Darwinism

In the early 18th century, the poet Bernard Mandeville wrote a poem, "The Grumbling Hive." This poem was not an outstanding piece of literature and had little influence at the time of its writing. However, it contained an interesting and highly controversial message that was supported in his two-volume defense of the poem, The Fable … Continue reading Bernard Mandeville’s Influence on Darwinism