During the early 19th century, a great fear of revolution spread across Europe. This fear was caused by the violent revolution in France at the end of the 18th century. In 1819, a radical German nationalist fraternity member murdered a conservative playwright and provoked what are known as the Carlsbad Decrees. These decrees were created by the Austrian Foreign Minister, Klemens von Metternich (who represented Austria in the Congress of Vienna), and dissolved the radical fraternities, fired radical professors, and allowed only the publication of state-approved literature. This kind of reaction to revolutionary forces occurred also in Naples, Spain, and Russia. This kind of suppression of free speech would not lead to greater stability, however, but to more revolution in 1830 and later in 1848.