The War of the Spanish Succession

In the late 17th and early 18th centuries the Holy Roman Empire and France were concerned about the delicate balance of power in Spain. King Charles II of Spain was without an heir, and both Louis XIV of France and Leopold I of the Holy Roman Empire had set forth their preferred candidates for the … Continue reading The War of the Spanish Succession



Mercantilism is a economic school that was found in the 16th though 18th centuries. It saw trade as a sort of low-intensity warfare, in which one partner tried to get as big a piece of the "pie" than the others. It was focused on discouraging imports and on encouraging exports. The thought was that imports … Continue reading Mercantilism

Juan de Mariana’s Constitutionalism

Constitutionalism is the philosophy that there should exist some limit on the authority of the sovereign, or on the power of the established government. Constitutionalism does not rely on the existence of a physical document like the United States Constitution; instead, it usually relies on tradition. One of the key constitutionalist thinkers was Juan de … Continue reading Juan de Mariana’s Constitutionalism