The War of the Spanish Succession

In the late 17th and early 18th centuries the Holy Roman Empire and France were concerned about the delicate balance of power in Spain. King Charles II of Spain was without an heir, and both Louis XIV of France and Leopold I of the Holy Roman Empire had set forth their preferred candidates for the … Continue reading The War of the Spanish Succession


Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

The Edict of Nantes, granted by King Henry IV in 1598, gave religious freedom to the French protestants after the disastrous French Wars of Religion. Almost a century later in 1685, the edict was revoked by king Louis XIV, his grandson. The revocation was justified in an interesting way. Louis XIV said in his revocation … Continue reading Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

Juan de Mariana’s Constitutionalism

Constitutionalism is the philosophy that there should exist some limit on the authority of the sovereign, or on the power of the established government. Constitutionalism does not rely on the existence of a physical document like the United States Constitution; instead, it usually relies on tradition. One of the key constitutionalist thinkers was Juan de … Continue reading Juan de Mariana’s Constitutionalism