The 95 Theses, famously posted on the door of the Wittenberg Church in 1517 by Martin Luther (1483-1586), were a series of short points that he was willing to debate. They were primarily concerned with indulgences (the partial or total remission of temporal punishment due to sin), and particularly the sale of indulgences. During this … Continue reading Luther’s ’95 Theses’
Popular culture likes to dismiss the Middle Ages as a period of ignorance, epitomised by the supposition that everybody thought the earth was flat. Many school textbooks still hold this outdated belief. The idea that people of the Middle Ages thought that the earth was flat is completely false. That the earth was round was … Continue reading Flat Earth?
Today when we think of Spain we think of a single, unified country that, along with Portugal, comprises the Iberian peninsula. However, it was not always this way. It was once comprised of four separate kingdoms: Navarre, Aragon, Castile, and León (which joined Castile in 1301); and Grenada, which was controlled by the Muslims. There … Continue reading Centralization in Spain
Martin Luther had not yet fully developed his ideas on Protestantism when the 95 Theses were published in 1517. The 95 Theses were concerned with the perceived sale of Indulgences during the reign of Pope Leo X. Leo X offered an Indulgence to anyone who would contribute money for the renovation of St. Peter's Basilica … Continue reading Luther’s Early Thought
In the years preceding the Church reforms of the 15th century there were many abuses of Church office, and degeneration among the clergy and the laity. This is not to say that the Church on the eve of reform was totally degenerate. On the contrary, there were many important saints during this period, and several … Continue reading The Catholic Church on the Eve of Reform