Major Renaissance Artists

The Renaissance was a huge cultural movement that took place primarily in Italy in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was characterized by a revival of interest in ancient Greek literature, a shift of focus from things spiritual to things secular, the ideas of humanism and individualism, and a growth in hostility towards the Catholic … Continue reading Major Renaissance Artists


Invocation of God in ‘The Decameron’

The Decameron was a work of literature written after the Black Death in the mid-14th century by Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375). It told the story of seven ladies and three men who fled the city of Florence during the plague and took up residence in an abandoned mansion. There they told each other stories to amuse … Continue reading Invocation of God in ‘The Decameron’


Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) was a poet and an early humanist whose ideas personified the essence of the Renaissance. At an early age, he was fascinated with the great Roman and Greek classics, and later on devoted much effort in tracking down lost manuscripts. He was completely uninterested in the works of Aristotle, and general philosophy … Continue reading Petrarch

Law in ‘The Little Flowers of St. Francis’ and ‘The Song of Roland’

In two classic works of medieval literature, The Song of Roland and The Little Flowers of St. Francis, the law of God was central. It was necessary to follow the correct law in order to have victory in The Song of Roland, and it was necessary for salvation in The Little Flowers of St. Francis. … Continue reading Law in ‘The Little Flowers of St. Francis’ and ‘The Song of Roland’

Essay 15: On the Counter-Current Exchange

For animals with gills, such as fish, the processes of gas exchange (extracting oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide) are more difficult to accomplish than for terrestrial creatures with lungs. The reason for this is that gases always flow from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. On land, there is a … Continue reading Essay 15: On the Counter-Current Exchange

John Wycliff

John Wycliff (1320-1384) was a priest and a professor at Oxford whose ideas were precursory to those of the later protestant reformers. He believed in the idea of predestination, in which it has already been determined in the mind of God whether or not a soul has been saved. He said that a person's works … Continue reading John Wycliff