Ovid’s View on the Gods and Ethics

Ovid did not believe that the conduct of the gods was bound to ethical principles. The gods were imperfect and exhibited human vices, like envy, and their ethical conduct was unpredictable. In Ovid's Metamorphoses, there were stories that showed the gods with all their imperfections. In the story of Jupiter and Io, Jupiter was an … Continue reading Ovid’s View on the Gods and Ethics


The Greeks and the Christians

It is somewhat of a stereotype that the early Christian writers and theologians disregarded the philosophical ideas of the great Greek thinkers. This is, in fact, not true at all. Most Christians writers believed that the Greek ideas were fulfilled by the Christian teachings. Some early Christian writers made parallels between the teachings of the … Continue reading The Greeks and the Christians

The Contributions of European Monasteries

The monasteries of Europe in the middle ages made huge contributions to western civilization which they are not often given the credit they deserve. They contributed greatly to agriculture, technology, education, infrastructure, and the preservation of great works of western literature. The monks were very active in agriculture and animal husbandry. They cleared forests for … Continue reading The Contributions of European Monasteries

Christians And The Roman Government From Trajan To Constantine

The relationship between the early Christians and the Roman government between 112 AD and the reign of Constantine was interesting. The policy of the emperor Trajan on the Christians was spelled out in a reply to letter sent to him by a provincial governor named Pliny the younger.  Pliny asked in his letter what the … Continue reading Christians And The Roman Government From Trajan To Constantine

Logic or Rhetoric in a Catilinian Counterargument

During the first century BC, there was a conspiracy involving a man named Catiline who organized an army of indebted noblemen and soldiers to attempt to overthrow the city of Rome. He was exposed by a consul named Cicero in several famous orations. Cicero's orations against Catiline were great examples of the use of rhetoric. … Continue reading Logic or Rhetoric in a Catilinian Counterargument

Christianity and the Ancient Religions

Christianity was unlike other religions that came before it. It was different from the Greek religion and other polytheistic religions of that time. It was also very different from the Hebrew religion, which was monotheistic. Even though it was different, it fulfilled the wants of philosophers and thinkers who had already drifted away from the … Continue reading Christianity and the Ancient Religions

Cause and Effect in ‘The Eumenides’ and ‘Works and Days’

The views expressed by Hesiod on ethics and sanctions in Works and Days are opposed to those of the Furies in Aeschylus's final play in the Orestia trilogy, The Eumenides. In Works and Days, there seems to be an element of forgiveness. Hesiod believed that his brother had cheated him out of his inheritance by … Continue reading Cause and Effect in ‘The Eumenides’ and ‘Works and Days’