Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinist?

Herbert Spencer, the famous 19th century philosopher, is often misrepresented as the father of social Darwinism and a precursor to the Eugenics movement. The idea of social Darwinism claims that Darwin's theories of biological evolution and natural selection can be directly applied to social organization. Those members of society that cannot survive should not survive, … Continue reading Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinist?



Romanticism was a movement contemporary with the later stages of Neoclassicism, but had not much to do with it ideologically. It was not fundamentally opposed to Neoclassicism, as was Modernism, but it placed its emphasis differently. Romanticism focused on the spiritual aspect of humanity, concerning itself more with emotion than with rationality. While Neoclassicism took … Continue reading Romanticism


A movement beginning in the 18th century, Neoclassicism was characterized by a movement towards order and rationality among the arts. As its name suggests, there was a revival of Classical Greek and Roman culture, reflected most notably in architecture. The Neoclassical period coincided with the Enlightenment, and reflects its confidence in reason, among other ideas. … Continue reading Neoclassicism

Bernard Mandeville’s Influence on Darwinism

In the early 18th century, the poet Bernard Mandeville wrote a poem, "The Grumbling Hive." This poem was not an outstanding piece of literature and had little influence at the time of its writing. However, it contained an interesting and highly controversial message that was supported in his two-volume defense of the poem, The Fable … Continue reading Bernard Mandeville’s Influence on Darwinism